Pre historic excavations at Gobustan especially it’s rock paintings.
4th century B.C:
Emergence of two strong kingdoms, Caucasian Albania in north and Atropatan in south.
First Golden Age (9th -12th century A.D.):
Shirvanshah dynasty's governance from 7th century to 14th century A.D. Literature, arts and music prospered in this era. Great poet Nizami Ganjevi who created the epic ‘Khamsa’ born in this era.
Second Golden Age (15th -16th century A.D.):
Rule of Shah Ismail (Khatai) the First from the 15th century. An excellent ruler and connoisseur of arts, with himself being a poet. Established Azeri Turkish as state language of the vast empire of Safavids.
Partition of Azerbaijan:
After the decline of Safavids Empire in the 19th century, Russia and Persia divided Azerbaijan along the Araz River with the northern part under Russian control and southern ruled by Persia.
Transformation of Azerbaijan in the 20th century:
After the massive discovery of oil in Azerbaijan, the region transformed completely raising the socio-economic strata of the society with middle class people becoming millionaires.
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920):
Under the leadership of Mehmet Emin Rasulzadeh, the first Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established with Georgian’s, Azerbaijanis, Russians, Armenian’s and Jewish leaders being included in its parliament.
Independence of Azerbaijan from Russia:
After 70 years of Russia rule, Azerbaijan’s won their Independence on October 18, 1991. Many martyrs had sacrificed their lives so that their country could see this day. In fact Azerbaijan is the only country with no Russian military force on its base. Today despite the fact that the oil and natural gas industry is the premium reason for growth in economy, people are facing economic hardships due to inflation and non-oil industries. But the situation has slowly improved and is improving with time as World Bank declared the country as top 10 reformer in 2008.